Pennsylvania and California dentists plan to fight opioid addiction

Opioid abuse and addiction are a growing problem in the United States, significantly affecting morbidity and mortality. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the death rate for drug poisoning involving opioid analgesics nearly quadrupled from 1999 to 2013, from 1.4 deaths per 100,000 Americans to 5.1 deaths per 100,000 Americans. On both coasts, dentists are taking action to help reverse this disturbing trend.

FDA action on opioids has generally been pro-business, approving at least one opioid in a non-abuse-deterrent formulation, and focusing its efforts on. changes. However, many dentists find themselves in a position of influence regarding the supply of opioids, and in California and Pennsylvania, they’re taking action.

At the recent California Dental Association meeting in San Francisco, Dr. Patrick Sammon and Dr. John Lindroth spoke about the work dentists can do to reduce the amount of opioids on the street, as well as to lower the odds that a patient struggling with addiction is prescribed opioids. “Do your job,” Dr. Sammon advised dentists. “Do a thorough medical history. You can get a report back on a patient, finding out what controlled substances they’re using, electronically, in a matter of a minute.”

Dr. commented that no drug will render a post-operative patient pain-free, and recommended that dentists consider combining non-opioid analgesics to achieve a synergistic effect without the addiction and/or diversion risk of opioids. His recommendations echo those made by the Pennsylvania Dental Association earlier this year. While noting that care should be taken to avoid unduly elevating a patient’s bleeding risk, the PA guidelines state,

Clinicians should administer non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDS) as first-line analgesic therapy, unless contraindicated. NSAIDs have been demonstrated to be very effective for the treatment of dental pain, and indeed are often more effective than opioids.

Another PA guideline informs dentists in no uncertain terms, “Patients reporting unexpectedly prolonged pain, especially those patients who do not have clear evidence of ongoing pathology, should not be prescribed opioids.” Instead, “The clinician should consider patient referral to appropriate dental or chronic pain specialists.”

Drug addiction and diversion are real problems in America today, and dentists are taking the first steps in conquering this problem.


Why criminals can’t hide behind Bitcoin | Science

Bitcoin, the Internet currency beloved by computer scientists, libertarians, and criminals, is no longer invulnerable. As recently as 3 years ago, it seemed that anyone could buy or sell anything with Bitcoin and never be tracked, let alone busted if they broke the law. Its totally anonymous, Martti Malmi, one of Bitcoins earliest developers and investors, boasted in June 2013. The FBI does not have a prayer of a chance of finding out who is who.

The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and other law enforcement begged to differ. Ross Ulbricht, the 31-year-old American who created Silk Road, a Bitcoin market facilitating the sale of $1 billion in illegal drugs, was sentenced to life in prison in February 2015. In March, the assets of 28-year-old Czech national Thomas Jiikovsky were seized; hes suspected of laundering $40 million in stolen Bitcoins. Two more fell in September 2015: 33-year-old American Trendon Shavers pleaded guilty to running a $150 million Ponzi schemethe first Bitcoin securities fraud caseand 30-year-old Frenchman Mark Karpeles was arrested and charged with fraud and embezzlement of $390 million from the now shuttered Bitcoin currency exchange Mt. Gox.

The majority of Bitcoin users are law-abiding people motivated by privacy concerns or just curiosity. But Bitcoins anonymity is also a powerful tool for financing crime: The virtual money can keep shady transactions secret. The paradox of cryptocurrency is that its associated data create a forensic trail Recover My Files that can suddenly make your entire financial history public information.

Academic researchers helped create the encryption and software systems that make Bitcoin possible; many are now helping law enforcement nab criminals. These experts operate in a new field at the crossroads of computer science, economics, and forensics, says Sarah Meiklejohn, a computer scientist at University College London who co-chaired an annual workshop on financial cryptography in Barbados last month. There arent that many of us, she notes. We all know each other.

When Bitcoin first emerged, law enforcement officers were panicking, Meiklejohn says. They thought these technologies were dangerous and made it harder for them to do their job. But as the arrests and convictions have rolled in, theres a steady shift toward seeing cryptocurrency as a tool for prosecuting crimes. Even in the strange new world of Bitcoin, FBI Assistant General Counsel Brett Nigh said in September 2015, investigators can follow the money.

C. Smith/Science

UNLIKE MONEY ISSUED by governments, Bitcoin has no Federal Reserve, no goldbacking, no banks, no physical notes. Created in a 2008 academic paper by a still unknown person using the name Satoshi Nakamoto, Bitcoin is an intellectual artifact, says Patrick McDaniel, a computer scientist at Pennsylvania State University (Penn State), University Park. Its the frontier of economics.

Strictly speaking, Bitcoins are nothing more than amounts associated with addresses, unique strings of letters and numbers. For example, 1Ez69SnzzmePmZX3WpEzMKTrcBF2gpNQ55 represents nearly 30,000 Bitcoins seized during the Silk Road bustworth about $20 million at the timethat were auctioned off by the U.S. government on 1 July 2014.

Those Bitcoins have been split up and changed hands numerous times since then, and all of these transactions are public knowledge. The past and present ownership of every Bitcoinin fact every 10-millionth of a Bitcoinis dutifully recorded in the blockchain, an ever-growing public ledger shared across the Internet. What remains hidden are the true identities of the Bitcoin owners: Instead of submitting their names, users create a code that serves as their digital signature in the blockchain.

Just like any currency, Bitcoins real-world value emerges as people trade it for goods, services, and other currencies. If youre not a miner, you can only get Bitcoins from someone who already has them. Companies have sprung up that sell Bitcoinsat a profitable rateand provide ATM machines where you can convert them into cash. And of course, you can sell something in return for Bitcoins. As soon as both parties have digitally signed the transaction and it is recorded in the blockchain, the Bitcoins are yours.

As Science went to press, Bitcoins market capitalization, a measure of the amount of money invested in it, stood at $5.6 billion. That money is very safe from theft, as long as users never reveal their private keys, the longand ideally, randomly generatednumbers used to generate a digital signature. But as soon as a Bitcoin is spent, the forensic trail begins.

BY 2013, millions of dollars worth of Bitcoins were being swapped for illegal drugs and stolen identity data on Silk Road. Like a black market version of Amazon, it provided a sophisticated platform for buyers and sellers, including Bitcoin escrow accounts, a buyer feedback forum, and even a vendor reputation system. The merchandise was sent mostly through the normal postal systemthe buyer sent the seller the mailing address as an encrypted messageand the site even provided helpful tips, such as how to vacuum-pack drugs.

Investigators quietly collected every shred of data from Silk Roadfrom the images and text describing drug products to the Bitcoin transactions that appear in the blockchain when the deals close. Ultimately, investigators needed to tie this string of evidence to one crucial, missing piece of data: the Internet Protocol (IP) addresses of the computers Deleted Computer Files used by buyers or sellers.

The challenge is that the Bitcoin network is designed to blur the correspondence between transactions and IP addresses. All Bitcoin users are connected in a peer-to-peer network over the Internet. Data flow between their computers like gossip in a crowd, spreading quickly and redundantly until everyone has the informationwith no one but the originator knowing who spoke first.

This system worked so well that it was carelessness, not any privacy flaws in Bitcoin, that led to the breakthrough in the investigation of Silk Road. When Ulbricht, the ringleader, was hiring help to expand his operation, he used the same pseudonym he had adopted years before to post announcements on illegal drug discussion forums; that and other moments of sloppiness made him a suspect. Once FBI tracked his IP address to a San Francisco, in California, Internet cafe, they caught him in the act oflogging into Silk Road as an administrator.

Other criminals could take solace in the fact that it was a slip-up; as long as you used Bitcoin carefully, your identity was protected behind the cryptographic wall. But now even that confidence is eroded.

Among the first researchers to find a crack in the wall were Damaged Data the husband-and-wife team of Philip and Diana Koshy. In 2014, as graduate students in McDaniels lab at Penn State, they built their own version of the software that buyers and sellers use to take part in the Bitcoin network. It was especially designed to be inefficient, downloading a copy of every single packet of data transmitted by every How To Recover My Pictures computer in the Bitcoin network. We wanted to see everything, Philip Koshy says.

If the data flowing through the network were perfectly coordinated, with everyones computer sending and receiving data as frequently as the rest, then it might be impossible to link Bitcoin addresses with IP addresses. But there is no top-down coordination of the Bitcoin network, and its flow is far from perfect. The Koshys noticed that sometimes a computer sent out information about only one transaction, meaning that the person at that IP address was the owner of that Bitcoin address. And sometimes a surge of transactions came from a single IP addressprobably when the user was upgrading his or her Bitcoin client software. Those transactions held the key to a whole backlog of their Bitcoin addresses. Like unraveling a ball of string, once the Koshys isolated some of the addresses, others followed.

Ultimately, they were able to map IP addresses to more than 1000 Bitcoin addresses; they published their findings in the proceedings of an obscure cryptography conference. It is unusual for an academic paper to cause both The New York Times and the U.S. Department of Homeland Security to come calling. It was crazy, Philip Koshy says. Their technique has not yet appeared in How To Recover Computer Files the official record of a criminal case, but the Koshys say they have observed so-called fake nodes on the Bitcoin network associated with IP addresses in government data centers in Virginia, suggesting that investigators there are hoovering up the data packets for surveillance purposes too. (The pair has since left academia for tech industry jobs.)

AS CRIMINALS HAVE EVOLVED more sophisticated methods to use Bitcoin, researchers have followed apace. Meiklejohnwho says she regularly works with law enforcement but is not comfortable discussing the detailswas one of the first researchers to explore Bitcoin mixing services. The basic idea is to protect the anonymity of transactions by swapping many peoples Bitcoin stashes with each other, as in a shell game. The forensic trail shows the money going in but then goes cold because it is impossible to know which Bitcoins belong to whom on the other end. So in principle, this is a solution to Bitcoins anonymity problem, Meiklejohn says.

Bitcoin Foundation Vice Chairman Charlie Shrem (right) leaves the Manhattan federal courthouse in New York City in January 2014. Shrem was later sentenced to 2 years in prison for laundering money on Silk Road.

Lucas Jackson/Reuters

But even mixing has weaknesses that forensic investigators can exploit. Soon after Silk Road shut down, someone with administrative access to one of the newly emerging black markets walked away with 90,000 Bitcoins from user escrow accounts. The thief tried to use a mixing service to launder the money, but wasnt patient enough to hide the tracks, Meiklejohn says. Its difficult to push large amounts of Bitcoin through mixing services secretly. Its extremely noticeable no matter how you do it. Thomas Jiikovsky, the man under investigation by Czech police, is suspected to be the thief in question.

The beauty of Bitcoin, from a detectives point of view, is that the blockchain records all. If you catch a dealer with drugs and cash on the street, youve caught them committing one crime, Meiklejohn says. But if you catch people using something like Silk Road, youve uncovered their whole criminal history, she says. Its like discovering their books.

Exactly that scenario is playing out now. On 20 January of this year, 10 men were arrested in the Netherlands as part of an international raid on online illegal drug markets. The men were caught converting their Bitcoins into Euros in bank accounts using commercial Bitcoin services, and then withdrawing millions in cash from ATM machines. The trail of Bitcoin addresses allegedly links all that money to online illegal drug sales tracked by FBI and Interpol.

IF BITCOINS PRIVACY shortcomings drive users away, the currency will quickly lose its value. the demand for financial privacy wont disappear, and new systems are already emerging. I dont feel people have the right to know, unless disclosed, how much cash is in my wallet, just like I dont feel anyone should know what conversations Im having with anyone else, says Ryno Matthee, a software developer based in Somerset, South Africa.

Matthee is part of a team launching a new anonymous online market called Shadow this year, which will use its own cryptocurrency, ShadowCash. The goal is not to facilitate illegal transactions, Matthee says. It will be up to the users, who administer the system, to police it, he says, but to help prevent abuse, we are going to try our best to filter out known keywords for drugs or worse.

Shadow is far from the only Bitcoin competitor. Scores of alternative cryptocurrencies now exist. And some experts predict that one may finally go mainstream. Some banks already rely on a cryptocurrency called Ripple for settling large global money transfers. And the U.S. government has been engaging with the cryptocurrency community and learning from them, says Bill Gleim, head of machine learning at Coinalytics, a company based in Menlo Park, California.

Gleim believes the federal government will issue its own cryptocurrency, maybe as soon as late 2016. If so, it is likely to require users to verify their real-world identities. That could defeat the purpose of cryptocurrency in the eyes of privacy advocates and criminals. Or maybe not: In this technological game of cat and mouse, the next move may go to the criminals.

Study: Music Gives Brain Pleasure Rush

NEW YORK – Whether it’s the Beatles or Beethoven, people like music for the same reason they like eating or having sex: It makes the brain release a chemical that gives pleasure, a new study says.

The brain substance is involved both in anticipating a particularly thrilling musical moment and in feeling the rush from it, researchers found.

Previous work had already suggested a role for dopamine, a substance brain cells release to communicate with each other. But the new work, which scanned people’s brains as they listened to music, shows it happening directly.

1950s’ Fashion and Clothing

This post-war period stands out in the history of fashion owing to some radical changes that came about. The minimalistic approach towards clothing that was taken in the earlier decade saw an end and there was a renewed passion for dressing up well, and with panache. Dressing up impeccably was a way of life. Fashion saw an emergence of consumer-driven attitude like never before.

Some of the most famous names in fashion like Dior and Chanel launched some of their most iconic designs in the 1950s. New materials, textures, designs, as well as patterns gained popularity. The bikini, drain-pipe trousers, pedal-pushers were all introduced and gained popularity in the ’50s. With a generation that was ready to push the boundaries of style and fashion, there was a lot of innovative styles that became all the rage in the fifties.

So what were the most popular styles of the ’50s? What were the trends that caught the imagination of that generation? Here are the top silhouettes and clothing patterns that were most popular amongst the fashion-forward in the ’50s.

The Fifties for Women

For formal wear during the day, tailored suits which combined peplum jackets with pencil skirts were in vogue. Women wearing dresses generally opted for patterns with full skirts and a fitted bodice. Shirtdresses.

which had bodices that resembled shirts were also extremely popular. Evening dresses often were of the same length as day dresses and were combined with a short, bolero jacket. Towards the mid-1950s the styles started taking a new turn with unfitted suits and dresses making an appearance. In 1955, Dior showcased an A-line dress and in the late 1950s Coco Chanel headlined with the Chanel suit, a braid-trimmed jacket styled after cardigan worn with an A-line skirt. The sheath dress with its straight cut and a slight A-line pattern also first saw popularity in the 1950s.

During the war in the forties, several women had taken to wearing trousers. And in the fifties, they continued to wear pants. The style changed slightly with women taking to wearing ankle-length narrow pants. Mid-calf pants known as houseboy pants and pedal-pushers (knee-length pants) also gained in popularity.

The Fifties for Men

Blame it on the television series Mad Men for bringing the fashion of the fifties in the limelight again. But Don Draper does leave a woman wanting for more. And men in the fifties did put their dashing selves forward in the best possible way.

Once the war ended, the trends for men changed quite a bit. Suits that they wore became broad-shouldered and double-breasted. The trousers were also bigger and were rimmed with cuffs. The previously placed restrictions on things like fabrics were now eased. Broad lapels and coordinated accessories were in vogue. It was in this period that Savile Row introduced a look that they called the New Edwardian. The look was made up of a slightly-flared jacket, shoulders following natural lines, a narrow cut, a bowler hat, and an overcoat. In time the double-breasted suits were replaced with narrower single-breasted suits with less padding and in lighter fabrics.

Sports coats followed the same cut as coats worn as a part of suits. Plaids were fashionable and a popular fabric. Bermuda shorts were also extremely sought after and often worn with knee-length socks. Men also wore knit shirts and sweaters.

Fashion is known to evolve constantly. Fashion from the fifties also evolved with time but it is one of those decades that we keep revisiting for inspiration. If you are one of those people who likes to constantly reinvent themselves, then this is the decade to look towards. Your new favorite look may not be too far off.

Students to learn coding – rather than a foreign language | Americas | News

Politicians in Florida are poised to allow students to study computer coding rather than a foreign language.

Legislators in Tallahassee are set to vote on a proposal raised by a former Yahoo executive who believes students should be able to drop a traditional foreign language for coding, a language that many consider the lingua franca of the technology era.

Reports suggest that support for such a move web designing firm strong across the country. President Barack Obama recently called in a weekly radio address for computer science to join the three Rs – reading, writing and arithmetic.

Politicians in Florida are set to vote on the proposal this week

Officials in Kentucky, Georgia, New Mexico, Oregon and Washington also have floated the notion of substituting foreign language studies with computer coding credits in recent years, Reuters reported.

Democratic state Senator Jeremy Ring, who formerly worked for Yahoo, said his bill aimed to elevate computer science in Florida, where students mostly take the subject as an elective. When searching for High Quality, search engine mobile and friendly friendly websites you need to take a look at working with the leading Web site design Company in Traverse city.

Foreign languages are not required to earn a basic state diploma.

Andrew Ladanowski and his son Jeremy are among those who support the measure.

Its very important for me and my son because my son has speech apraxia, so he has a difficulty pronouncing words, pronunciations, as well as a learning disability in respect to speech and language, said Mr Ladanowski.

good homepage design wont have the time and energy to excel in the courses that he does. Wed like to maintain those As and Bs in the science, technology.

<script async src="https://secure.assets. Website Web .com/post.js”>and mathematics and we worry that we spend all the time and resources trying to learn this foreign language that those grades will slip and the opportunity of going to college will be diminished.

Tennessee revives cursive teaching | Reuters

NASHVILLE Children in Tennessee will have to get used to holding a pencil again next year when new cursive handwriting standards go into effect in schools throughout the state.

The trend around the United States is to emphasize keyboarding – a skill that is included in the Common Core education standards adopted by most states.

But Tennessee lawmakers, concerned that some children do not have a signature and struggle to read their teachers’ handwriting, overwhelmingly passed a bill making cursive a mandatory subject in grades two through four.

Schools are expected to start bringing back the declining art of cursive in 2015-2016 under the new rules, signed into law this year by Governor Bill Haslam.

Keyboarding and print writing will still have their place, but legible penmanship will be required by third grade.

“I am surprised we have stopped teaching it in some places,” said Gary Nixon, executive director of the Tennessee School Board. “It’s an art that is losing its form because of the keyboard.”

For millennials, cursive is quaint and not much more.

“It’s kind of like hopping on a Pogo stick. If you can do it, great, but if not, it doesn’t matter,” said Cory Woodroof, 21, a student at Lipscomb University in Nashville who felt grade school handwriting classes were wasted time.

Also at Lipscomb, 20-year-old Janice Ng of Singapore said she took immersion studies in English back home but “they didn’t mention cursive.

//’s not used.”

The benefits of cursive teaching standards are questionable, according to one national literacy expert.

“I don’t think it’s bad, but I don’t think there’s much of a point to it,” said Sandra Wilde, chair of the National Council of Teacher of English Elementary Section Steering Committee.

Dedicating teaching time to cursive could take time away from touch-typing, a more important skill these days, she said.

Wilde said the cursive requirements in Tennessee echo moves in other conservative states where lawmakers have tried to put their own stamp on the school system in a reaction to Common Core.

The academic requirements under the Common Core State Standards adopted by most U.S. states and territories over the last few years aim to better prepare high school graduates for college and for the demands of employers.

Common Core does not ban cursive writing teaching, said Melissa McGrath, spokeswoman for the Council of Chief State School Officers, which helped develop the standards.

She said it is up to teachers and communities to decide whether they want to teach it.

(Editing by Fiona Ortiz)